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        十五、玉米干燥工藝及設備選型

        十五、玉米干燥工藝及設備選型

        • 分類:常見問題
        • 作者:
        • 來源:
        • 發布時間:2013-05-06 18:09
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        概要:我國玉米盛產于東北、西北和華北各地。玉米是晚秋作物,收割時期往往天氣不好,玉米收獲后的含水率總是偏高。在東北地區,糧食部門收購的幾乎都是含高水分的玉米。

        十五、玉米干燥工藝及設備選型

        概要:我國玉米盛產于東北、西北和華北各地。玉米是晚秋作物,收割時期往往天氣不好,玉米收獲后的含水率總是偏高。在東北地區,糧食部門收購的幾乎都是含高水分的玉米。

        • 分類:常見問題
        • 作者:
        • 來源:
        • 發布時間:2013-05-06 18:09
        • 訪問量:
        詳情

        一、玉米的干燥條件

        我國玉米盛產于東北、西北和華北各地。玉米是晚秋作物,收割時期往往天氣不好,玉米收獲后的含水率總是偏高。在東北地區,糧食部門收購的幾乎都是含高水分的玉米。正常情況下收割的玉米水分也在20%左右,有時高達25%-30%。在西北和華北地區新收割的玉米含水率普遍要比東北地區低許多,一般水分在20%以內。

        玉米是我國糧食干燥的主要內容之一。當玉米原始水分高于30%時,應采用機械通風干燥法或自然晾曬法對玉米果穗進行去水處理。因為高水分玉米,不易直接脫粒,否則會產生大量破碎糧粒。當玉米含水率低于30%時,可以先脫粒,再進行干燥處理。當然,如果是作為玉米種子烘干,一般仍然采用帶穗進行烘干,以保證玉米種子的生命力。(本文主要是針對脫粒后的玉米烘干進行相關論述)

        玉米是難以干燥的糧食品種之一,主要原因是其顆粒大,單位比表面積小,表皮結構緊密、光滑,不利于水分從玉米內部向外部轉移。特別是在高溫干燥介質作用下,由于其表面水分迅速蒸發,玉米表皮之下的水分不能及時轉移出來,造成內外壓力差和溫度梯度增大,致使玉米顆粒表皮脹裂或發漲變形。最終導致烘后玉米暴腰、破碎粒顯著增加,降低了玉米品質。因此,在進行高品質玉米烘干時,盡量避免采用高溫烘干。實驗表明:當干燥介質溫度超過150℃時,玉米受熱溫度大于60℃時,玉米就會出現大量暴腰,玉米淀粉品質明顯下降。

        近年來,隨著農產品深加工由粗放型向精細化的不斷發展,國內外許多大型玉米加工企業,特別是淀粉行業和酒精發酵行業,越來越注重烘后玉米的品質問題。這就對玉米干燥提出了新的要求,即不但要烘干,而且要烘好。玉米低溫烘干方式已經成為一種發展趨勢,逐步成為市場的主流,下面以日處理300噸玉米烘干為例,予以分析說明。

        處理量:玉米300 t/d;進機水分:18%,出機水分13%,降水幅5%。

        平均環境溫度15℃,平均相對濕度80%RH

        熱源:稻殼爐燃燒換熱后的潔凈熱風;

        工藝流程如下:

        進料口→提升機→初清篩→提升機→進濕倉→提升機→烘干系統→出料;另外還有供熱系統和電控系統等等。

        a、設備總動力:132kwh,每小時去水能力W=862kg水;

        b、每小時提供熱能Q=110(北方地區約需140)萬大卡;

        c、每小時煤燃燒量M=259(北方地區約需329.5)kg,其中煤熱值按5000大卡/kg計,燃煤爐效率按0.85計;

        d、煤按800元/噸計,電價平均按0.7元/度計算;

        根據以上數據計算,則單位烘干成本為:

        南方地區P=(132×0.7+259 ×0.8)/15=20元/噸

        北方地區P=(132×0.7+329.5 ×0.8)/15=19.5元/噸

        總占地面積約500平方米。

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